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Friends Only Journal [Feb. 28th, 2019|09:05 pm]
Friends Only Journal
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[Apr. 18th, 2016|09:19 pm]
Exekutiva funktioner

Kopierat och klistrat in från Internet:

Att göra något för första gången är ofta svårt. När det har blivit till en vana går det lättare. Då behöver man inte tänka så mycket på vad man gör. Men när något invant förändras måste man anpassa sig till det nya. Personer med autism har ofta svårt för det.
Många av vardagens handlingar går helt på rutin. Vi gör dem utan att tänka. Att gå och att äta gör vi med automatik. Att cykla, simma eller åka skridskor kan också bli sådana väl inövade handlingar. ”Det är som att cykla” brukar man säga, och menar att det sitter så djupt att det nästan är omöjligt att glömma.

Men ibland räcker inte inövade beteenden och rutiner. När man ställs inför nya problem eller situationer krävs också nya lösningar. Det är då vi använder det som kallas exekutiva funktioner.
Exekutiva funktioner är ett samlande namn på flera olika funktioner som styrs från den främre delen av hjärnan (frontalloben). De fungerar som samordnare av olika typer av information och ligger bakom allt målinriktat beteende.

De viktigaste exekutiva funktionerna är:

* Förmåga att planera
* Förmåga att hejda sina (oönskade) handlingar
* Anpassningsförmåga

Det finns flera olika definitioner av vad de exekutiva funktionerna är. Begreppet exekutiva funktioner är mycket brett och fortfarande har man inte slagit fast exakt vad som ska ingå i begreppet. Risken finns att det täcker in så mycket att det egentligen inte förklarar någonting.

Några viktiga exekutiva funktioner enligt Lundin och Möller är:

- förmågan till att ta initiativ
- tidsuppfattning, förstå sambandet mellan orsak och verkan
- förmågan att planera och organisera
- förmågan att övervaka sina handlingar, en funktion där handlingar ses hur de görs och om det sättet fungerar, denna funktion hjälper till med självkorrigering
- förmågan att värdera egna handlingar
- skapandet av struktur i vardagen
- förmågan att motivera sig själv till handlingar
- kunna skjuta upp behovstillfredsställelse
- förmågan till att inhibera automatiskt agerande
- förmågan att fokusera uppmärksamhet, här krävs att ovidkommande saker kan blockeras (inhibition)
- förmågan att hålla kvar uppmärksamheten både med och utan distraktioner, denna förmåga är begränsad till minuter
- förmågan att fördela uppmärksamheten.
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Vegetarianism and Veganism [Apr. 24th, 2011|07:05 pm]
Statement from the UK Vegetarian Society on Vegetarianism and Veganism:

A vegetarian is someone who does not eat any meat, poultry, game, fish, shellfish, crustacea or slaughterhouse by-products such as gelatine or animal rennet. However, some vegetarians go further, eating only free-range eggs, organic dairy products or, in the case of vegans, no animal products at all (ie no eggs, dairy products or honey in addition to the list above). Anyone who stops eating meat will make a valuable contribution to reducing animal suffering and death. They will also reduce their personal impact on the environment and make a positive contribution to greater global sustainability. The Vegetarian Society therefore supports whatever choice people make within the spectrum of vegetarianism. However, we recognise that animals suffer and are killed in all current commercial methods of dairy and egg production. These industries also cause environmental damage and require animals to be fed on plant products that could otherwise be consumed directly by humans. Many of the reasons for becoming vegetarian also, therefore, suggest that veganism may offer a more complete solution. Vegetarian food has become much more widely available in recent years. Thanks to many, many years of campaigning and promotion by large numbers of individuals and several different organisations, vegetarianism is, on the whole, no longer seen by most as the extreme way of life that it once appeared to be. However, ninety-seven percent of the people in the UK eat meat. The vast majority mix primarily with meat eaters, having grown up in meat-eating families, where they learned skills and habits for buying, cooking and eating a diet dependant on animal flesh. Moving to a vegetarian diet can seem a difficult challenge as they reconsider how to achieve a balanced, healthy diet while still enjoying eating out, socialising with meat eaters and getting on with their everyday life. The perceived difficulty of these relatively simple lifestyle changes is one of the reasons why a Vegetarian Society is still necessary in twenty-first century Britain. A wholly vegan diet is significantly more restrictive than one that includes eggs and/or dairy products. Vegans need to work harder than vegetarians to ensure that their diet is well balanced. They are also much more likely than vegetarians to experience difficulty when shopping in mainstream outlets or eating out. Many people attracted to the principles of vegetarianism will never accept this level of change to their lifestyle, but might take the less dramatic step of becoming vegetarian. Some of these will, as their confidence that they can eat healthily and enjoyably grows, also cut dairy and eggs from their diet. The Vegetarian Society supports the principles behind veganism and seeks to both support and represent vegans as one group within the vegetarian community. Many of our members, trustees and staff are vegan, but we are not a vegan organisation and will continue to promote and support non-vegan forms of vegetarianism as a positive contribution towards a more compassionate and sustainable society.
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Cat Things [Jul. 13th, 2008|03:30 pm]
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I would love to have most of the things in these shops:

The Cat Gallery

Cat Gifts and Merchandise at Whales & Friends

Kitty City
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Lying for Jesus? [Mar. 24th, 2008|05:19 pm]
Read the whole text, from the top to the bottom:


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Break the Science Barrier - Richard Dawkins [Feb. 8th, 2008|04:05 pm]

Break the Science Barrier - Richard Dawkins



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Quantum of Solace [Feb. 8th, 2008|10:10 am]

Quantum of Solace Behind the Scenes - Clip No. 1

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For Daniel Craig's birthday [Jan. 29th, 2008|12:45 pm]
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Submit a donation as part of a worldwide campaign by all Daniel Craig fans in recognition of his 40th birthday to Barnardo's, a worthwhile charity that Daniel Craig supports, at: http://www.justgiving.com/dorisstich
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The Out Campaign [Aug. 1st, 2007|05:15 pm]
The Out Campaign
by Richard Dawkins
July 31st, 2007

Reposted from:
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Richard Dawkins [Jun. 23rd, 2007|01:35 pm]
During a recent trip to the Galapagos with the Center for Inquiry, Richard Dawkins gave a reading of his new preface to the paperback edition of The God Delusion along with a Q&A session that followed. The event took place in the ship's bar salon area.

Part 1: Reading of the new paperback preface to The God Delusion (24:38)

Part 2: Q&A (33:14)
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Good And Bad Reasons For Believing [Mar. 11th, 2007|02:35 pm]
Richard Dawkins' letter to his daughter Juliet on good and bad reasons for believing:
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Richard Dawkins [Mar. 3rd, 2007|09:30 pm]
A link to Richard Dawkins website:

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